SQL Interview: #12: Using UNION vs UNION ALL

Job Interview

This is a post in the SQL Interview series. These aren't trick or gotcha questions, they're just questions designed to scope out a candidate's knowledge around SQL Server and Azure SQL Database.

Section: Development
Level: Intro


Consider the following code:

A: What would be the difference in results if the query was changed to use a UNION ALL instead of the UNION?

B: What are the performance differences between using a UNION ALL and a UNION in a SELECT statement?

C: How could this query be rewritten without the UNION?


A: If the query was changed to use UNION ALL, a customer might be returned more than once. A UNION performs a DISTINCT operation on the results of the query. A UNION ALL does not perform the DISTINCT operation on the results.

B: A UNION invariably involves more work and is slower as it needs to perform a DISTINCT operation on the results.

C: One option would be to rewrite it as follows:


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