Yet another useful group of words that are best learned as a set are the words to describe colors.
Now the general term for color is:
I can use it in a sentence like this:
那是什么颜色? (Nà shì shénme yánsè?) is basically "what is that color?" or better "what color is that?"
To answer it, here are some common colors:
红色 (Hóng sè) is red
蓝色 (Lán sè) is blue
黄色 (Huáng sè) is yellow
绿色 (Lǜsè) is green
黑色 (Hēi sè) is black
白色 (Bái sè) is white
褐色 (Hé sè) is brown
灰色 (Huī sè) is gray
粉色 (Fěn sè) is pink (although my mother in law says 粉红色 (Fěnhóng sè) which is like "pinkish red")
金 色 (Jīn sè) is gold
银色 (Yín sè) is silver
紫色 (Zǐ sè) is purple
橙色 (Chéng sè) is orange
This is a good general set to get started with. And of course, as we do in English, there are entire families of colors and shades associated with each of these.
For example, 深 (Shēn) is deep and so it's no surprise that
深绿色 (Shēn lǜsè) is deep green or dark green.
I'll write more soon on the best methods for learning. If you want to get a taste for it in the meantime though, my current favorite site is iTalki, and my favorite teacher by far is Amy He. If you decide to try it, click here and it's cheaper for both you and me.